Referencing: Formatting for Assignments - transcript
This is a transcript of the video Referencing: Formatting for Assignments.
[Caption] QUT Library. Referencing: Formatting for Assignments.
Once you have completed your research and kept the details of your sources (author, date, title) you will then need to complete the referencing of your sources in your assignments.
At QUT there are four referencing styles: Numbered, Law, APA and Harvard. The official guide to referencing in these styles is called cite|write. [It's made up of a booklet and...] style guides can be found on the cite|write website.
Most students will use APA or Harvard. Your lecturer or tutor will tell you what style to use. You can also usually find out the required style on Blackboard by checking the unit outline or week one document.
Both APA and Harvard are author date systems. This is because you use the in text citation of the author's last name and date to find the full reference in the reference list.
There are a few different ways you can cite in text. [An example of citing at the end of the sentence is shown: "... can be an important part of library collections for undergraduates (Brown, 2012, p. 40)."] For example, you may like to use the author's name as part of the sentence. You may also need to use a page number to show exactly where you got your information.
The reference list is ordered alphabetically by the author's family name.
[The previous example is shown linking to its entry in the reference list: "Brown, J. (2012). The ebook I used. [EBL version]. Retrieved...".
The numbered system works by the same general principle but instead uses a number in the text of your essay to identify the full reference in the reference list.
[An example is shown: "...fostering the learning of undergraduates4."]
The reference list reflects the order in which the sources were cited in your essay (numerical order).
[The previous example is shown linking to its entry in the reference list: " Black, A, Bally, SP. Teaching first year referencing...".]
There are a few different ways of using your sources in your writing.
Your in text citation can be a direct, word for word quote from a source [an APA/Harvard example of a direct quote is shown: '"ebooks offer increased equity of use and thus, can be an important part of library collections for undergraduates" (Brown, 2012, p. 40).'], an indirect paraphrasing of an author's idea using your own words [an APA/Harvard example of indirect paraphrasing is shown: "Green (2012, p. 75) points out that for many students, it is hard to tell the difference between a suitable and an unsuitable source."], or a summary of an author's complete argument. [an APA/Harvard example of a summary is shown: "...before deciding to use them (Green, 2012; Black..."].
It is important to get this part right so you are referencing fairly and accurately.
Once you have all the details of your sources all you need to do is arrange them according to the style you are expected to use. While these styles use different punctuation and formatting they generally use the same details to describe the source. The trick is to be organised and have all the details you need ready.
Let's now look at a few examples of how the details of sources are formatted in the reference list.
Starting with a full reference for a book. For this reference we will use APA style. The author's name is broken down into last name then first name initial. The title is italicised. All you need to do is follow the template swapping the details of your source and noting what punctuation is used. [We are shown an example book, and see the template: "last name, initial. (date). title. place of publication: publisher." replaced by "Green, S.P. (2012). A book that I used. Brisbane: Book Publishers Press."]
An ebook is similar. Let's use Harvard style this time. The author is broken down into last name followed by first name. The title is also italicised. date used will be the date you accessed the source. [We are shown an example ebook, and see the template: "last name, first name. date. title. place of publication: publisher. Accessed date used. URL." replaced by "Green, Steven. 2012. A book that I used. Brisbane: Book Publishers Press. Accessed May 5, 2013. http://www.the_ebook's_url.com."]
A book chapter is a little more complex. Note that there are two authors: the chapter author, and the editor. The chapter author is listed first. There are also two titles (chapter title and book title). It is the title of the book which is italicised. This example uses APA. [We are shown an example book chapter, and see the template: "chapter author last name, initial. (date). chapter title. In book author initial. last name (Ed.), book title. (pp. chapter page numbers). place of publication: publisher. replaced with "White, J.M. (2012). A chapter that I read. In S.P. Green (Ed.), A book that I used. (pp. 60-65). Brisbane: Book Publishers Press."]
Here's a journal article in Harvard style. Note that there are also two titles for journals. The article title and the journal titles. The journal title is italicised. Details specific to a journal article include the volume, the issue and the DOI so that the specific journal can be found. [We are shown an example journal article, and see the template: "last name, first name. date of publication. "title of article". journal title volume number (issue number): page numbers. Accessed date used. Doi: full digital object identifier." replaced by "Green, Aldo. 2012. "Teaching first year referencing." Journal of Information Usage 30 (3): 65-66. Accessed May 5, 2013. doi:10.52011/JIU.2012.12."]
Finally a website in APA. Most often, a website fit for academic use will have a corporate author - a group or organisation responsible for the content. Note that when you are referencing a website the title is not italicised. [We are shown an example website, and see the template: "author. (date of publication). Title. Retrieved from URL" replaced with "Department of Referencing Skills. (2012). Referencing and the web. Retrieved from www.drs.gov.au/refweb.html"]
Before your first assignment, make sure you are familiar with the basic rules of referencing in the cite|write booklet and the particular formatting used in your referencing style on the cite|write website.
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